The Degree of Psychological and Structural Empowerment for Women Academic Leaders at the Jordanian Universities in Light of the Glass Ceiling Methodology


This study, mainly, sought to investigate the degree of empowering of women academic leaders at the Jordanian Universities in light of glass ceiling methodology. The study relied on the quantitative method for collecting the data from 159 women academic leaders in the Jordanian universities. The researcher adopted the psychological empowerment instrument (PEI) to measure the degree of women academic leaders’ psychological empowerment, and the work effectiveness questionnaire (WEQ) to measure the structural empowerment.  The results indicated a high level of equality for the opportunities between the two genders at the leadership positions in the academic institutions. As well, the results did not point to any existence for glass ceiling approach at the Jordanian academic institutions due the high level of structural and psychological empowerment for women academic leaders. This empowerment is illustrated in the accessibility for information and resources, training, support, and decision making. The results indicate a high level of psychological empowerment for women academic leaders in terms of dimension of self-determination, meaning, impact, and competence respectively.


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